The first sign of dimentia is usually the gradual loss of mental abilities such as thinking, remembering, reasoning or planning.

​As the deterioration progresses, the person loses the ability to carry out everyday activities. This causes changes in behaviour and personality

Dementia affects each person in a different way, depending upon the impact of the disease and the person’s personality before becoming ill. The signs and symptoms linked to dementia can be understood in three stages.

Early stage: the early stage of dementia is often overlooked, because the onset is gradual. Common symptoms include:
  • forgetfulness
  • losing track of the time
  • Becoming lost in familiar places.

Middle stage: as dementia progresses to the middle stage, the signs and symptoms become clearer and more restricting. These include:
  • becoming forgetful of recent events and people's names
  • ​becoming lost at home
  • having increasing difficulty with communication
  • needing help with personal care
  • Experiencing behaviour changes, including wandering and repeated questioning.

Late stage: the late stage of dementia is one of near total dependence and inactivity. Memory disturbances are serious and the physical signs and symptoms become more obvious. Symptoms include:
  • becoming unaware of the time and place
  • having difficulty recognizing relatives and friends
  • having an increasing need for assisted self-care
  • having difficulty walking
  • ​Experiencing behaviour changes that may escalate and include aggression.

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